LED lighting is a relatively new technology that is fully based on the work of LEDs. If we wanted to understand how and why an LED bulb is more efficient than tungsten should look into the history and development of LEDs.
What is the LED?
First let’s start with the definition of LED. LED is a semiconductor when illuminated passed through it current. LEDs are used in electronics and new forms of lighting.
Let’s compare how the LED and tungsten bulb. Incandescent bulbs operate on the principle of heating. Tungsten filament in a glass bulb is heating to a high temperature and lights. The main problem is that nearly all the energy consumed to shine the light bulb is released as heat. Tungsten bulb wastes up to 90% of consumed energy into heat, which makes it extremely inefficient.
LED lighting is part of a new technology called lighting semiconductors that have high energy efficient and very refined and attractive design. Moreover, unlike the tungsten light bulbs, LED bulbs are cold to the touch. Sometimes one LED bulb can have several LEDs.
LED lamps operate on the principle of electroluminescence – certain substances emit light when electricity passes through them. In the LED lighting lamp is not used, which is heated, and the movement of electrons in the semiconductor material, which usually is aluminum gallium arsenide. The light was removed so-called Pn transition. (link to the article from Wikipedia for the curious).
Some history facts
Electroluminescence, natural phenomenon, which is based on LED technology was discovered back in 1907 by British scientist Henry Dzhousef Round. In the 20s of last century Russian scientist Oleg Vladimirovich Losev also studied the phenomenon of luminescence in diodes of radios.
In 1927, he published a scientific paper on the topic, but unfortunately and historical events in Russia at that time did not allow further study and development of his work. However, it is necessary to mention that his work influenced future innovators in this field.
Years later, in 1961, Robert Biard and Gary Pitman invented and patented infrared LED for “Teksas Instruments”. And this is actually the first operating LED. But as he works in the infrared spectrum of light, its use by people was impossible. In this situation is that two American scientists made the discovery by accident while working on the development of laser diode.
Led by widmann range
in this case using mnogzhestvo LEDs for this indicator iceIn 1962, Nick Holoniak, a young engineer working for “GE COMPANY” invented the first LED from the visible spectrum of light. He shone red, and to make his Holoniak using gallium arsenide phosphide as reactive mixture on the Functioning of the diode.
With this invention, Holoniak has earned the honor of being named “the father of LEDs”. American scholar holds another 41 patents as other important inventions are the laser diode and the first regulator brightness of light (dimmer). Another interesting fact otnostno Holoniak is that he was a student at one of the inventors of the transistor – John Bardeen, the first person to win two Nobel prizes!
In 1972, electrical engineer M George Crawford invented the first yellow LED working for the infamous company “Monsanto” producing dimmable LED lighting. It also uses gallium arsenide phosphide basis for diode. Crawford managed to create and red LED that shines 10 times brighter than the Holoniak. A curious fact is that “Monsanto” is the first company to embark on mass production of LEDs.
In 1968, “Monsanto” began production of red LEDs, whose main application is for indication. LEDs do not gain popularity until the 70s when “Feyrchayld Optoelektroniks” does not begin to produce cheap LED devices. Thomas Pierce invented the highly effective and very bright LED in 1976, which is widely used in optical cables and communications.
On the Japanese Shuji Nakamura owe the first blue luminous diode, which he invented in 1994, using gallium nitride for the substrate.
Maybe this whole story may seem boring, but that’s what smooth absorption capabilities of LEDs in modern technology has led to today’s state of affairs. LED lighting technology is the present and the future and inextricably linked to the development of LEDs.
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